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They remained unchanged or showed some slight improvements during the treatment period, concerning most variables with no obvious differences between the two groups; insulin showed a slight trend to decrease in the wIRA group and to increase in the control group. Undesired effects of the treatment were seen neither in the wIRA group nor the control group neither by clinical investigation and questioning nor by analyzing the variables of interest including blood variables.
On the contrary, a part of the participants found the wIRA irradiation pleasant and relaxing for the musculature. The presumably underlying mechanisms of wIRA have already been proven by different working groups and by different methods [ 19 ]:. Thermal effects of wIRA are the generation of a therapeutic field of warmth with the increase of. In addition non-thermal effects of infrared-A [ 39 ], [ 40 ], [ 41 ], [ 42 ], [ 43 ] and effects of wIRA on cells including cell protective effects [ 44 ], [ 45 ], [ 46 ] have been described. The magnitude of the observed effects in the wIRA group is physiologically plausible and the effects do not exceed explicable amounts, especially when taking into account, that wIRA causes e.
Beyond already existing cellular investigations [ 44 ], [ 45 ], [ 39 ], [ 40 ], [ 41 ], [ 42 ], [ 43 ], [ 46 ] effects of wIRA on mitochondria and cellular structures and functions will be investigated in the future. It is impressive, that within the limited intervention period of only 4 weeks with a total of 12 irradiations in the wIRA group clear differences between the two groups were seen.
Although this randomised controlled study was not blinded for technical reasons: the visible radiation can be seen, the infrared radiation can be felt , it can be accepted that the results of this study do not have to be explained as placebo effects, but can be interpreted with some reservations to be valid results, as they are in line with other findings including those of randomised controlled double-blind studies with wIRA [ 14 ], [ 15 ], [ 19 ].
The calculated energy requirement was similar in both groups approximately kcal. As wIRA is able to cause acute positive reactions like pain reduction directly during the single irradiation [ 15 ], [ 19 ] and as ergometer exercise causes immediate changes in blood concentrations [ 47 ], it might be interesting to investigate blood variables before and directly after wIRA or after combined wIRA and ergometer exercise in further studies.
Corresponding to this, in the wIRA group the body weight, the body mass index BMI and the fat mass decreased markedly more than in the control group.
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The results of the study indicate, that wIRA irradiation during moderate ergometer endurance exercise can be used — in combination with an appropriate nutrition — to improve body composition, especially local fat distribution, and reduction of fat and body weight in obese persons. Longer periods than the investigated 4 weeks can be assumed to be more effective. Informed consent: Informed consent for the publication of the photograph has been obtained from the represented person.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ger Med Sci v. Ger Med Sci. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 2. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone.
Undesired effects of the treatment were not seen. Keywords: water-filtered infrared-A wIRA , weight reduction, local fat reduction, bicycle ergometer endurance exercise, lipolysis, randomised controlled study, intervention trial, body weight, body mass index BMI, analysis of body composition, tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, lactate, lipid metabolism, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL.
Introduction Nowadays, the ubiquity of obesity among the population of Europe and the USA presents an ever increasing problem to the medical community from the point of prevention. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
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Aim of the study The aim of the study was to investigate, whether wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction measured as summarized circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs and on body weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females BMI median: Figure 2.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Table 1.
Anthropometric variables of interest before and after the treatment period of 4 weeks in the wIRA group and the control group. Table 2. Blood variables of interest before and after the treatment period of 4 weeks in the wIRA group and the control group. The presumably underlying mechanisms of wIRA have already been proven by different working groups and by different methods [ 19 ]: wIRA acts both by thermal effects and by non-thermal effects [ 14 ], [ 17 ], [ 19 ], [ 20 ].
Thermal effects of wIRA are the generation of a therapeutic field of warmth with the increase of tissue temperature proved in humans by direct measuring of the tissue temperature with stitch probes [ 36 ], [ 37 ] as well as with implanted probes in 2 cm of tissue depth in operation wounds, showing approximately 2. Notes Conflicts of interest: none declared.
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References 1. Hollmann W, Hettinger T. Hollmann W. Sportmedizinische Aspekte zu Fitness und Wellness [Sportsmedical aspects of physical fitness and wellness]. Bad Nauheim, Stuttgart: Schattauer; ISBN Halle M, Berg A. Korsten-Reck U. Nina macht Mut. Successful against overweight in children and teenagers] Berlin: Econ Ullstein List; Liebermeister H. Wechsler JG. Blair SN, Brodney S. Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: Current evidence and research issues.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. New Engl J Med. Williams PT. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in female runners. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. Hoffmann G. Randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial of the influence of local water-filtered infrared-A irradiation on postoperative wound healing after abdominal surgery.
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Improvement of wound healing in chronic ulcers by hyperbaric oxygenation and by waterfiltered ultrared A induced localized hyperthermia. Adv Exp Med Biol. Water-filtered infrared A wIRA for the improvement of wound healing in acute and chronic wounds. Z Wundheilung - J Wound Healing. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A wIRA in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers including evaluation using infrared thermography.
Foss P. Effect of local hyperthermia by waterfiltered infrared A on muscle related flexibility and on subjective rating of muscle status. Int J Sports Med. Learn more about his fascinating continent, Raise the Stakes. Colin's trans sister needs money for gender reassignment surgery.
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