Chaîne Opératoire


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We aim to test coherent experimental processes and formulate precise questions related to prehistoric technologies. It combines sumptuary objects made of gold and bronze, which are not usually found together in the context of the Iberian Peninsula.


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No archaeometric studies of these metal objects existed prior to the project. The gold objects were studied by B. The disk is 45 mm in diameter, has a maximum height of 8 mm and weighs 42 grams. It has a central hole in the shape of a four-tipped star.

5 Techniques, Chaîne Opératoire and Technology

The convex face has a grooved decoration, whereas the concave face does not present any decoration See Figure 2. It is well preserved, so it has not undergone restoration. However, it has recently suffered some detachment of material. It was possible to analyse specific spots on the metal surface. Analysis 1, on one of the white impurities observed on the surface, showed a high content in gold Au and somewhat less in silver Ag. Analyses 2 and 3, on the rest of the mass, showed contents in copper Cu and tin Sn , determining the evidence of a binary bronze, without lead Pb. The gold impurities observed are imbued in the matter, and are also appreciable where the patina was lost in recent times; this indicates that the impurities were present in the metal at the time of reduction or casting.

They can also be observed on the rough finished backside of the piece, so the idea of gilding can be discarded See Figure 4.


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Material is missing on an area of the concave side of the piece. In the two areas of metal failure, possible shrinkage cavities, two appendices appear that could be the remains of the supports for the sprue See Figure 5. These failures could indicate that insufficient bronze was poured in, or that the degassing process did not work properly. Based on direct observation and the analyses made on the archaeological material the disk , we established the hypothesis of manufacture through a lost wax process Lackinger, A.

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In this technique the original model is created in wax and is afterwards covered with clay, making the mould. When the mould is dried and fired the wax is lost, leaving an empty space for metal to be poured.

To recover the metal from the mould, the mould has to be broken, being thus only possible to produce one piece in each mould. Model-making from beeswax. Besides the modelling of the piece itself, the addition of sprues the passage through which liquid material is introduced into a mould and gas escape channels See Figure 6, Table 1 was also taken into account and must be moulded in wax.


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  • The type of wax used in this experiment was from the caps, which is of higher purity. Its preparation, once it is released from the hive, involves that it has to be boiled in water for a few minutes and allowed to cool, removing the wax layer on the surface. After, the remaining wax is clean and can be worked. In the present experiment, we started with a block shape, where we were able to draw and start working the piece into shape.

    During this process a heat source was used in various stages, to be able to model the wax into the various parts as well as to smooth the surface. The working time was about three hours and a half for the wax preparation and about two hours for the wax modelling. Construction of the clay mould.

    The model composed by the disk piece, casting sprue and gas escape channel was covered with clay and sand to make the mould See Figure 7, Table 2. We had first planed the manufacturing of the mould by alternating layers of clay and fine sand, but the labour was more complex than we expected a priori. The resulting moulds, although acceptable, still exhibited some imperfections.

    Valentine Roux

    Also, during the drying and firing process about one half of the moulds produced broke next step. The manufacture of the clay moulds demands an exhaustive control of conditions of humidity and temperature. Part of the problem is the drying time, since if it is too fast cracks can develop. The minimum drying time for a piece of this type was found to be of one week also dependent on temperature and atmospheric relative humidity.

    Emphasis was placed on the alignment of classical traditional methods and art technical skill along with Art History and later Complimentary Studies The balance of these relationships and what constituted technical processes had become less clearly defined.

    This paper explores whether between the years the pedagogy of the copy continued to be instrumental within radical teaching projects, centered on and around St. To explicate the teaching rational, a framework, in the form an Operative Sequence is applied to a selection of projects that made up the course. History Law Linguistics Literature. Music Neuroscience Philosophy Physical Sciences. Read More. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password?

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