Firms, Boards and Gender Quotas. One impetus is the recent reform in Norway, prescribing gender quotas to the boards of directors of public companies. Shortly after the Norwegian reform was First In Their Field. A harmless eccentric, or a serious pioneer of field First Settlement of Remote Oceania. In these remote islands of the northwest Pacific Ocean, archaeological discoveries now can define This is an essential all-in-one for new parents looking for quick, simple ways to record.
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Reproductive Justice and ‘Choice’: An Open Letter to Planned Parenthood
How can I tell when someone is flirting with me? How can I be a more confident flirt? How do I avoid rejection? Where are all the good men and women hiding? Focus Group Research. Carey and Asbury provide background on the history of focus groups then document the best practices in conducting a study using them. Folklore of Scottish Lochs and Springs.
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Comprehensive programs that acknowledge and respond to the multiple and overlapping identities and issues have far greater evidence of success then those that do not. In order to be fully effective, these programs must necessarily consider and respond to the particular circumstances, prejudices and stigmas African-American and other women of color face.
By recognizing the similarity in the issues concerning reproductive rights and the drug war there is an opportunity not only for a deeper understanding of each issue, but also a basis for developing analysis and action that can counteract the dominating forces of punishment and prohibition and begin to build coalitions and movements toward preserving and expanding those social programs that can in fact empower women, preserve families, and create a more just society. Paltrow, JD is Executive Director of the National Advocates for Pregnant Women, an organization dedicated to protecting the rights and interests of pregnant and parenting women and their children.
Information about NAPW can be found at www. The author wishes to acknowledge and thank Robert G. Newman, MD and Professor Sylvia Law for their insight and generous help in shaping this article, and also thanks to Karla Momberger and Tanya Vishnevsky for their research assistance. Hunter, Deborah Small, Wyndi M. Finally, the author thanks the Southern University Law Review staff and her family for their patience. References See, e.
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Wade, 62 Alb. Levine eds. Paltrow et al. Freedom Project, New York, N.
FEMINISM AND THE LABOR MOVEMENT: A Century of Collaboration and Conflict
See, e. Wade viii "It is beyond dispute that many abortions took place in the United States while the procedure was illegal; some estimates put the number of abortions in the years leading up to Roe as high as 1. Many, probably a majority of these cases, were women's attempts at self-abortion. The others were performed by some combination of lay persons, nurses, midwives, and physicians. Although, for a brief time in her career, Margaret Sanger made clear the connection between sexual pleasure and contraception, once stating, "Never be ashamed of passion.
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If you are strongly sexed, you are richly endowed," the provision of reproductive health services, including abortion and contraception tend to avoid acknowledgment of sexuality for their patients. As one family planning clinic worker explained: "We are never going to achieve credibility with our clients until we acknowledge that 'family planning' has something to do with making love. And people in our field have been unable to do that. Many have suggested that there is a relationship, if not absolutely causal, between violence experienced by women and drug use" ; Jahn L.
See Norman E. Zinberg, M. Joffe, supra note 3, at 29 "A study published by Frederick Taussig in estimated a half-million illegal abortions were taking place in the United States annually; the Kinsey Report in suggested that nine out of ten premarital pregnancies among its respondents were aborted, while over 20 percent of the married women in the sample reported having had an abortion while married. Horowitz, supra note 9, at 26 "[D]rug use continues to rise. The National Institute on Drug Abuse, which is staunchly hawkish on the drug war, reports, alarmingly, that marijuana use among eighth-graders more than doubled between and Among adults, use of all drugs has consistently gone up, though most of this increase is attributable to the runaway popularity of marijuana.
Health Rep. To put that in perspective, we went to the moon for less than a third of that amount. Joffe, supra note 3, at 29 "One well-known result of the 'century of criminalization' that resulted from the efforts of the AMA was a flourishing market in illegal abortion" ; Horowitz, supra note 10, at 26 "[I]t is hard to imagine that drugs could be much more available than they are right now. Joffe, supra note 3, at See Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, Abortion and Woman's Choice 87, describing how the American eugenics movement of the early 20th century "resulted in the involuntary sterilization of over 45, persons in the United States in the years between and , half of them mentally ill as opposed to mentally defective, and the great majority of them poor women" and how "[n]early all of the documented or court-adjudicated instances of sterilization abuse during the 's involved women who were poor and either black, Mexican-American, Puerto-Rican, or Native-American or women who were incarcerated or mentally incompetent ; see also Iris Lopez, Agency and Constraint: Sterilization and Reproductive Freedom Among Puerto Rican Women in New York City, in Situated lives: Gender and Culture in Everyday Lives Louise Lamphere et al.
Maia Szalavitz, War on Drugs, War on Women, On The Issues Magazine, Winter , at 43; see also Gray, supra note 10, at , 76 At the turn of the century the typical American addict was a middle-aged southern white woman strung out on laudanum an opium-alcohol mix. Broadly defined, drugs were common to the cultures of both urban blacks and college hippies, and Republicans were eager to link race rioters with campus protesters.
Research has found that crack-exposed children are not doomed to suffer permanent mental or physical impairment, and that whatever effects may result from the use of this drug are greatly overshadowed by poverty and its many concomitants - poorer nutrition, inadequate housing, health care and stimulation once the child is born.
See Deborah A. Frank, M. Pediatrics Dec. Mayes, M. As yet other researchers explain: The "crack baby" on which drug policy is increasingly based does not exist. Crack babies are like Max Headroom and reincarnations of Elvis - a media creation. Cocaine does not produce physical dependence, and babies exposed to it prenatally do not exhibit symptoms of drug withdrawal. In fact, without knowing that cocaine was used by their mothers, clinicians could not distinguish so-called crack-addicted babies from babies born to comparable mothers who had never used cocaine or crack.
John P. See generally Laura E. Campbell, Using Women: Gender, Drug Policy, and Social Justice 13 "If addiction was attributed to women's lack of support for raising children alone, policy might veer toward strengthening women's political autonomy and economic security". Joffe, supra note 3, at 28; see also Ellen Chesler, Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America 64 explaining that the American Medical Association, largely responsible for the laws criminalizing abortion, "launched a virulent and determined campaign against abortion Campbell, supra note 21, at Poe v.
Chesler, supra note 22, at 68 quoting in part the Comstock Act of One interesting point of comparison is the fact that in each case the criminalization of information about contraception and abortion and the criminalization of certain non-alcoholic drugs, were largely the result of efforts of two zealous, politically motivated men in unique and lengthy positions of power: Anthony Comstock, who was responsible for the passage and enforcement of laws punishing the dissemination of information about contraception and abortion, see id.
Chesler, supra note Griswold v. Connecticut, U.
Reproductive Justice and ‘Choice’: An Open Letter to Planned Parenthood
Wade discussing the origins of the Griswold litigation and its relationship to Roe v. See generally Carey v. See generally Rust v.
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Related Family Caps, Abortion and Women of Color: Research Connection and Political Rejection
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